Prof. Dr. Ralph Locke



1970 B.A., Harvard, cum laude in Music.
Bacherlor's thesis: "Aaron Copland's Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson."
Adviser: Leon Kirchner.
1974 M.A., University of Chicago, in History and Theory of Music.
Master thesis: "Exotic Techniques and Their Meaning in the Works of Félicien David."
Adviser: Hans Lenneberg.
1980 PhD., University of Chicago, in History and Theory of Music.
Special field: 1800 to the present.
Doctoral dissertation: "Music and the Saint-Simonians: The Involvement of Félicien David and Other Musicians in a Utopian Socialist Movement."
Adviser: Philip Gossett.
M.A. and Ph.D. courses and seminars with Leonard B. Meyer, Edward E. Lowinsky, H. Colin Slim, Robert Marshall, Philip Gossett, Rose R. Subotnik, et al.  Also in Department of History, with Leonard Krieger and Keith Baker.
Foreign Study

Summers of 1969 and 1970: Language study at the University of Munich and at the Goethe Institute in Lüneburg.

1970-1971: Exchange student at the Freie Universität and Technische Universität, West Berlin (courses with Reinhold
Brinkmann, Carl Dahlhaus, et al.).

1974-1975: Attended courses at the University of Paris IV (Sorbonne) and École Pratique des Hautes Etudes (with François Lesure) while completing dissertation research.

Musical Training and Performance Experience

Studied piano at the New England Conservatory, Preparatory Department, then with Kate Friskin (Longy School of Music, 1966-70) and Heinz Grünbaum (West Berlin, 1970-71).  Accompanied singers in recitals.  Studied keyboard harmony and continuo playing at Harvard under Luise Vosgerchian and in Paris (1974-75) under Huguette Dreyfus.

Composed and conducted musical score for production of Brecht’s Mother Courage (Loeb Drama Theater, Cambridge, 1969).

Studied voice with Elsa Charlston (Chicago, 1974) and Bernard Demigny (Paris, 1974-75).  Sang in major choral works at Harvard (under Gregg Smith), Dartmouth, Tanglewood (under John Oliver, Seiji Ozawa, and Leonard Bernstein), West Berlin, and Paris, and with the Collegium Musicum at the University of Chicago (under Howard Mayer Brown).

Studied conducting with Ralph Shapey (Chicago, 1973) and Stéphane Caillat (Paris, 1974-75).

Faculty adviser to, and occasional guest conductor of, the Esterházy Chamber Ensemble, a small orchestra founded and entirely run by Eastman School students in order to play a cross-section of the Haydn symphonies over several years (1985-88).  The Ensemble performed 47 works, including 19 Haydn symphonies, some Baroque concerti grossi, as well as concerted works—with faculty soloists—by C. P. E. Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Schubert, Schumann, Rodrigo, Benson, and Musgrave.

Teaching Positions

Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester: Instructor in Musicology (1975-80); Assistant Professor (1980-84); Associate Professor (1984-88); Professor (1988-present; department chair, 2000-03).

University of Chicago: Instructor in Music History (Summer 1974).

Public schools, Hingham, Massachusetts: Instrumental Instructor (Summer 1969).




Music, Musicians, and the Saint-Simonians.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.  This is a revision of the Ph.D. dissertation (see above).  Chapters 1-2 have appeared in Japanese translation in Gendai shiso [Contemporary Thought], August 1991 (issue edited by Seido Sha).  Chapter 9 of the book contains abbreviated versions of articles nos. 5, 7, and 8 below.

Music in Nineteenth-Century France, edited and with an Introduction by RPL.  A special issue (vol. 13 [1993], nos. 1-2) of the Journal of Musicological Research.  The Introduction discusses novel and traditional scholarly approaches; the articles are by Steven Huebner, Lesley A. Wright, Andrew Gann, Hugh Macdonald, Daniel Albright, and Louise Goldberg.

Gender and Music, edited by Carmelo Peter Comberiati and RPL.  A special issue (vol. 14 [1994], nos. 1-2) of the Journal of Musicological Research.  Contains articles by Annie Janeiro Randall, Thomas McGeary, Camilla Cai, and Beth Miller; also reviews on Carolyn Abbate, Susan McClary, Benjamin Britten.

Cultivating Music in America: Women Patrons and Activists since 1860, edited by RPL and Cyrilla Barr.  Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997.  Contains studies and essays by eight musicologists (incl. Joseph Horowitz, Carol J. Oja, and Ruth Solie) on individual patrons (e.g., Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge) or larger issues (varieties of women’s involvement, including music clubs; recent shifts in patterns of patronage, in response to feminism).  Also ten interchapter “Vignettes” (documents with commentary).  RPL’s own four Chapters and three documentary Vignettes are listed under Section II below (Articles nos. 21-27).

Evocations of Elsewhere: Exotic Lands and Peoples in Western Music and Western Music’s Middle Easts: From Lully and Mozart to Verdi and Beyond.  Two books in preparation.  Preliminary versions of certain chapters have appeared as articles (or are forthcoming).


1.  “Composer at Court.”  Fenway Court, 1974 [no volume number], pp. 30-37.  (An article on the relationship between composer Charles Martin Loeffler and his patron Isabella Stewart Gardner, in the art-history journal published by the Gardner Museum, Boston.)

2.  “Leaves from Bayreuth” [including an unpublished Wagner letter].  Fenway Court, 1975 [no volume number], pp. 19-26.

3.  “Notice biographique de Félicien David.”  In Célébration du centenaire de la mort de Félicien David, pp. 2, 6-8.  Cadenet: [Ville de Cadenet], 1976.

4.  “New Letters of Berlioz.”  Nineteenth-Century Music, vol. 1, no. 1 (July 1977), pp. 71-85; reprinted with some new information in the Berlioz Society Bulletin (no. 102 [Winter 1978-79], pp. 2-20, and no. 103 [Spring 1979], p. 2).

5.  “Autour de la lettre à Duveyrier: Berlioz et les saint-simoniens.”  Revue de musicologie, vol. 63, nos. 1-2 (1977), pp. 55-77, and an additional note in vol. 64 (1978), no. 2, p. 287.  Expanded English-language version in preparation.

6.  “New Schumann Materials in Upstate New York: A First Report on the Dickinson Collection, with Catalogues of its Manuscript Holdings.”  Fontes artis musicae, vol. 27 (1980), nos. 3-4, pp. 137-61.  Co-author Jurgen Thym (Eastman School of Music).  See “Awards” above.

7.  “Liszt’s Saint-Simonian Adventure.”  Nineteenth-Century Music, vol. 4, no. 3 (Spring 1981), pp. 209-27, and correction in, vol. 5, no. 3 (Spring 1982), p. 281.

8.  “Mendelssohn’s Co.llision With the Saint-Simonians.”  In Jon Finson and R. Larry Todd, eds.  Mendelssohn and Schumann: Essays on Their Music and Its Context.  Durham: Duke University Press, 1984.  Pp. 109-22, 176-80.

9.  “Musique engagée?  The Experience of the Saint-Simonians at Ménilmontant.”  In La Musique et le rite: sacré et profane, Actes du xiiie Congrès de la Société Internationale de Musicologie, ed. Marc Honegger and Christian Meyer.  Strasbourg: Association des publications près les Universités de Strasbourg, 1986.  Vol. 1, pp. 145-55.  An abbreviated French version is  “L’expérience des saint-simoniens à Ménilmontant,” Les Cahiers de la fonderie: Revue d’histoire sociale et industrielle de la région bruxelloise, no. 25 (May 2001): 44-47.  The (uncredited) translation is by Béatrice Crabbe.  No. 25 of Cahiers is entitled “La Vie en musique.”

10.  “The Music of the French Political Chanson, 1810-50.”  In Peter A. Bloom, ed. Music in Paris in the Eighteen-Thirties—La Musique à Paris dans les années 1830.  La Vie musicale en France au xixe siècle, vol. 4.  Stuyvesant, New York: Pendragon Press, 1987, pp. 431-56.  Italian translation: “La musica della canzone francese, 1810-1850,” Musica/Realtà no. 19 (April 1986), pp. 67-95.

11.  “Félicien David: compositeur saint-simonien et orientalisant.”  In Magali Morsy, ed., Les saint-simoniens et l’Orient: vers la modernité (Aix-en-Provence: Édisud, 1990).  Pp. 135-53.

12.  “Paris: Centre of Intellectual Ferment [1789-1852].”  In Man and Music: The Early Romantic Era, Between Revolutions: 1789 and 1848, ed. Alexander L. Ringer.  Pp. 32-83.  (The Man and Music series consists of eight volumes, unnumbered, general editor Stanley Sadie.  In the USA the volumes were released under the series title Music and Society.)  London: Macmillan, 1990, and Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1991.  An Italian translation of the opening two sections (1789-99, 1800-1850) appeared as “Musica e potere in Francia (1789-1850),” trans. Anna Maria Sioli, in Musica/Realtà, no. 36 (December 1991), 87-101.

13.  “Constructing the Oriental ‘Other’: Saint-Saëns’s Samson et Dalila.”  Cambridge Opera Journal, vol. 3, no. 3 (November 1991), pp. 261-302.  A substantial passage is quoted in the “Exoticism” article in New Grove Dictionary of Opera.  Extended excerpts are published in an anthology: Music, Culture, and Society: A Reader, ed. Derek B. Scott (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 103-12.  Finally, a shortened and somewhat altered version of the whole article (including a new introductory section) appears in Richard Dellamora and Daniel Fischlin, eds., The Work of Opera: Genre, Nationhood, and Sexual Difference (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), pp. 161-84.

14.  “Reflections on Orientalism in Opera and Musical Theater.”  Published (with parentheses around the last three words of the title) in the proceedings of the International Musicological Society meeting of 1992 (Madrid): Revista de musicología 16 (1993), no. 6, pp. 10-22 [pages also carry a second numbering: pp. 3122-34].  A slightly altered version (four added illustrations; two extra musical examples.; no parentheses in the title; fuller notes) appeared in Opera Quarterly 10, no. 1 (Autumn 1993), pp. 48-64.  Translations of the Madrid version: “Riflessioni sull’esotismo nell’opera lirica,” Musica/Realtà 40 (1993), pp. 39-49 (the musical examples are omitted), and “Betrachtungen über Orientalismus in der Oper (und im Musiktheater),” Berliner Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft, published as supplement (Beiheft) to Neue Berlinische Musikzeitung, 1993, no. 3, pp. 39-46.

15.  “Music Lovers, Patrons, and the ‘Sacralization’ of Culture in America.”  Nineteenth-Century Music 17, no. 2 (Fall 1993), pp. 149-73; corrigendum in 18, no. 1 (Summer 1994), pp. 83-84.  A condensed version of this article appears in the first half of no. 27 (i.e., chapter 10 of Cultivating Music in America).

16.  “Women in American Musical Life: Facts and Questions about Patronage.”  repercussions 3, no. 2 (Fall 1994), pp. 81-95; corrigendum in 4, no. 1 (Spring 1995), p. 102.

17.  “Paradoxes of the Woman Music Patron in America.”  Musical Quarterly 78, no. 4 (Fall 1994), pp. 798-825.  Much of this article reappears, in somewhat altered form, in no. 27 (i.e., chapter 10 in Cultivating Music in America).  An abbreviated version appeared in Fame Notes no. 1 (published by the American Classical Music Hall of Fame, Cincinnati, Ohio).

18.  “What Are These Women Doing in Opera?” in En travesti: Women, Gender Subversion, Opera, edited by Corinne Blackmer and Patricia Juliana Smith (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), pp. 59-98.  This is a greatly expanded version of the July 1992 Opera News article listed in Section IV below.  A Czech translation (by Ji?i Svoboda) will appear in the collection Hudební divadlo jako výzva [Music Theatre as a Challenge], ed. Helena Spurná (Prague: TORST, forthcoming).

19.  “The French Symphony: David, Gounod, and Bizet to Saint-Saëns, Franck, and Their Followers.”  In D. Kern Holoman, ed., The Nineteenth-Century Symphony (New York: Schirmer Books, 1997).  Pp. 163-94.

20.  “The Political Chansons of Béranger: Artistry for Progressive Social Change.”  In Musik/Revolution: Festschrift für Georg Knepler zum 90. Geburtstag, ed. Hanns-Werner Heister, 3 vols. (Hamburg: von Bockel Verlag, 1997), vol. 2, pp. 115-32.

21-27.  Four chapters (two of them co-authored) and three short documentary Vignettes in Locke and Barr, eds., Cultivating Music in America (see Section I—”Books”—above):

 (21.) “Introduction: Music Patronage (Activism) as `a Female-Centered Cultural Process’”(co-author Cyrilla Barr; pp. 1-23)

 (22.) Vignette B. “The `Grand Composers’ of the Present Day: Betty Freeman Discusses How She Chooses and Supports Them” (interview and annotations by RPL; pp. 59-64)

 (23.) Chapter 1. “Patronage—and Women—in America’s s Musical Life: An Overview of a Changing Scene” (co-author Cyrilla Barr; pp. 24-53)

 (24.) Chapter 3. “Living with Music: Isabella Stewart Gardner” (by RPL; pp. 90-121)

 (25.) Vignette D. “Playing for Mrs. Gardner Alone: The Violinist Harrison Keller Reminisces” (letter annotated by RPL; pp. 122-23)

 (26.) Vignette J. “Music at the Drinkers’: Claribel Thomson and Alfred Mann Recollect” (annotated by RPL; pp. 290-94)

 (27.) Chapter 10.  “Reflections on Art Music in America, on Stereotypes of the Woman Patron, and on Cha(lle)nges in the Present and Future” (by RPL; pp. 295-336).  Incorporates much material from Articles nos. 15 and 17 above.

28.  “Cutthroats and Casbah Dancers, Muezzins and Timeless Sands: Musical Images of the Middle East.”  In Jonathan Bellman, ed., The Exotic in Western Music (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998), pp. 104-36, 326-33.  A fuller version (though heavily trimmed in the footnotes) appeared in Nineteenth-Century Music 22 (1998-99): 20-53.

29.  “Musicology and/as Social Concern: Imagining the Relevant Musicologist,” in Rethinking Music, ed. Nicholas Cook and Mark Everist (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).  Pp. 499-530.

30.  “Response by Ralph P. Locke” [the title of my round-table “response” was deleted by the editors because the other responses did not have titles: I wanted it to be “Aesthetic Aspects of Social Phenomena in Music”].  In Musicology and Sister Disciplines : Past, Present, Future : Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of the International Musicological Society, London, 1997. Edited by David Greer with Ian Rumbold and Jonathan King.  London: Oxford University Press, 2000.  Pp. 209-17.

31.  “[Berlioz:] The Religious Works.”  In Peter Bloom, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Berlioz.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.  Pp. 96-108 plus endnotes.  Article was translated by Jean-Claude Teboul as “Les Oeuvres religieuses,” in Ostinato rigore: Revue internationale d’études musicales, special Berlioz issue, 21 (2003), 73-86.

32.  “Exoticism and Orientalism in Music: Problems for the Worldly Critic.”  In Edward Said and the Work of the Critic: Speaking Truth to Power, ed. Paul A. Bové (Durham: Duke University Press, 2000).  Pp. 257-81, 306-12.

33.  “The Juice of Life: Getting Romantic with Romantic Music.”  Pendragon Review: A Journal of Musical Romanticism 1, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 45-60.  Published under the pseudonym Scrivens (as a response to an invitation by the editors for pseudonymous essays; I revealed my identity three years later in other articles).  Correspondence about the article will be published subsequently in vol. 2, no. 1.

34.  “What Chopin (and Mozart and Others) Heard: Folk, Popular, ‘Functional’ and Non-Western Musics in the Classic-Romantic Survey Course.”  In Mary Natvig, ed., Teaching Music History (London: Ashgate, 2002), 25-42.

35.  “The Border Territory between Classical and Broadway: A Voyage around and about Four Saints in Three Acts and West Side Story.”  In Liber Amicorum Isabelle Cazeaux: Symbols, Parallels and Discoveries in her Honor, ed., Paul-André Bempéchat (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, forthcoming).

36.  “Nineteenth-Century Music: Quantity, Quality, Qualities,” forthcoming as the first article in the inaugural issue of Nineteenth-Century Music Review (published by Ashgate).

37.  “Beyond the Exotic: How ‘Eastern’/’Ancient’/Imperialist/Anti-Imperialist Is Aida?”  Forthcoming in Cambridge Opera Journal.

38.  “Between alla turca and Aida: Musical Portrayals of the Middle East, 1800-70.”  Article completed and submitted for a book of interdisciplinary studies on Orientalism.

39.  “Aida and Eight Readings of Empire,” in progress.

40.  “Spanish Local Color in Bizet and Verdi: Sources Noticed and Transformed,” in progress.


New Berlioz Edition, vols. 3 and 8a (Béatrice et Bénédict and La Damnation de Faust).  Music Library Association Notes, vol. 38, no. 4 (June 1982), pp. 920-23.

H. C. Robbins Landon, Haydn: A Documentary Study.  The Opera Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2 (Summer 1983), pp. 119-20.

Franz Liszt, Grande fantaisie symphonique (on themes from Berlioz’s Lélio).  Music Library Association Notes, vol. 41, no. 2 (December 1984), pp. 383-85.

H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie, eds. New Grove Dictionary of American Music.  Review co-organized (and partly written) by myself and Mary Wallace Davidson.  Music Library Association Notes, vol. 44, no. 1 (September 1987), pp. 43-47.

Michael G. H. Wright, A Berlioz Bibliography: Critical Writing on Hector Berlioz from 1825 to 1986.  Journal of Musicological Research, vol. 9. no. 1 (1989), pp. 65-66.

Joël-Marie Fauquet, Les sociétés de musique de chambre à Paris de la Restauration à 1870.  Journal of the American Musicological Society, vol. 43, no. 3 (Fall 1990), pp. 505-13, and correction in vol. 45, no. 3 (Fall 1992), p. 546.

Félicien David, Le Désert, Brass Nonet in C Minor, and other recordings: “Breezes from the Orient, Airs from the Paris Salon: Félicien David Now on Disc.”  Journal of the American Liszt Society, vol. 33 (January-June 1993), pp. 44-49.  Portions were first published in Sigismund Thalberg Society Newsletter, vol. 3, no. 2 (1992), 2-8, and in American Record Guide, vol. 56, no. 4 (July-August, 1993), pp. 198-99.

Félicien David, Piano Trios nos. 2-3, recording on Marco Polo (3.223492), American Record Guide, vol. 57, no. 1 (January-February 1994): 92-93.

Libby Larsen, three song cycles (including a world premiere), with four seventeenth-century lute songs, in progress for American Record Guide


Letter regarding operatic ornamentation in the early nineteenth century.  Journal of the American Musicological Society, vol. 31, no. 1 (Spring 1978), pp. 175-76.

Entry on the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum.  In Women in American Music, edited by Adrienne Fried Block and Carol Neuls-Bate.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1979.

“Félicien David” (with Hugh Macdonald) and “Saint-Simonians.”  In New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.  London: Macmillan, 1980.  Revised version has appeared in the second edition (2001).

Entries on Americana in the Gardner Museum, the Dickinson Collection, and my own holdings.  In Resources of American Music History, ed. Donald W. Krummel.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981.

“Isabella Stewart Gardner.”  In New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 4 vols., ed. H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie.  London and New York: Macmillan, 1986.

“Absolute Music,” “Program Music,” “Program Symphony,” and “Symphonic Poem.”  In New Harvard Dictionary of Music, ed. Don Michael Randel.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.  Revised versions in Harvard Dictionary of Music, 4th edn.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.

“David and Aida” [letter to the editor], Musical Times vol. 129, no. 1744 (June 1988), p. 288.

“What Are These Women Doing in Opera?”  Opera News, vol. 57, no. 1 (July 1992): 34-36.  An expanded version appeared as Article no. 18 above.

“Félicien David” (with Hugh Macdonald).  In New Grove Dictionary of Opera, article and bibliography expanded from New Grove entry listed above.  London: Macmillan, 1992.

Annotated reprint of a little-known, highly “gendered” description of sonata form (as drama involving male and female characters), written by the turn-of-the century American composer Clayton Johns.  In “Comment and Chronicle,” Nineteenth-Century Music, vol. 16, no. 3 (Winter 1993): 304-05.

Letter identifying Gounod’s Faust as an archetypal instance of a tendency toward flat keys and compound-triple meter (a tendency identified in an article by Hugh Macdonald).  In “Comment and Chronicle,” Nineteenth-Century Music, vol. 18, no. 1 (Summer 1994): 83-84.

“(Alexandrine) Sophie (Goury de Champgrand), Countess de Bawr.”  In New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers, ed. Julie Anne Sadie and Rhian Samuel (London: Macmillan, 1994), pp. 43-44; book published in North America as Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers (New York: W. W. Norton, 1995).

Entries on musicological literature (e.g., Dahlhaus) in The American Historical Association’s Guide to Historical Literature, 3rd ed., ed. Mary Beth Norton and Pamela Gerardi, 2 vols.  Vol. 1, pp. xx, 724-30, 741-43, 752-53, and 757, and vol. 2, p. 1917.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

“Saint-Simonisten.”  In the 2nd, revised edition of Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, ed. Ludwig Finscher, 1998.

“Clayton Johns” (Boston composer, ca. 1900).  In American National Biography, ed. John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

 “Béranger, P.-J. de,” “Exoticism,” and “Orientalism,” for the revision of New Grove Dictionary of Music (New York: Macmillan, 2001), and revisions of “(Alexandrine) Sophie (Goury de Champgrand), Countess de Bawr” (New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers, see above) and of “Fay, Amy.”

Foreword, in a book that I prepared for the press by the late Hans Lenneberg: On the Publishing and Dissemination of Music, 1500-1850 (Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press, 2003), vii-ix.

“Brises d’Orient,” “Mélodies orientales,” “Saint-Simoniens,” “Tajan-Rogé,” and “Jules Vinçard.”  In Joël-Marie Fauquet, ed., Dictionnaire de la musique en France au xixe siècle.  Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 2003.

 “David, Félicien,” “Les Saint-Simoniens,” and “Tajan-Rogé, Dominique.”  In Dictionnaire Berlioz, ed. Jean-Pierre Bartoli, Peter Bloom, Pierre Citron, and Cécile Raynaud.  Paris: Fayard, 2003.  Book was awarded the Prix de l’Académie des Beaux-Arts.

“Boston Pops.”  In Encyclopedia of New England Culture, ed. Burt Feintuch and David H. Watters.  New Haven: Yale University Press, forthcoming.



Ralph P. Locke
Professor of Musicology Home Address:
Eastman School of Music 117 Warrington Drive
26 Gibbs Street Rochester, New York 14618-1122
Rochester, New York 14604-2599 (585) 442-0012
(585) 274-1450/1550 (dept.) or -1455 (office)
Eastman School's Fax: (585) 274-1088
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