Russian Resource Grammar (RRG)

The Russian Resource Grammar (RRG) is an open-source HPSG grammar for Russian developed at the Language Technology Lab of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI GmbH) and at the Computational Linguistics Department of Saarland University since 2009.

Main developers and contributors of  RRG are:

The grammar is released under the LGPL-LR, a version of the LGPL adapted for linguistic resources.

A preview release (the first public release 20110615) can be downloaded from here.

The grammar aims for broad coverage and linguistically precise analysis of Russian, also incorporating the general cross-Slavic as shown by the three-layer design: general (matrix.tdl), language-group oriented (slavic.tdl) and language specific (russian.tdl). Analyses are drawn in the framework of HPSG, while using Minimal Recursion Semantics (MRS) as the semantic representation.

Relevant publications to this release of the grammar are:

T.Avgustinova and Y.Zhang (2010) Conversion of a Russian dependency treebank into HPSG derivations. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic Theories (TLT'9), Tartu, Estonia

T.Avgustinova and Y.Zhang (2009) Exploiting the Russian National Corpus in the Development of a Russian Resource Grammar. Adaptation of Language Resources and Technology to New Domains at the RANLP 2009 Conference, Borovets, Bulgaria

T.Avgustinova and Y.Zhang (2009) Parallel Grammar Engineering for Slavic Languages. Workshop on Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks at the ACL/IJCNLP 2009 Conference, Singapore

The grammar uses UTF-8 and Cyrillics for the lexicon encoding. The lexicon currently consists of a small number of entries as representatives for various lexical categories. Automatic extension of the lexicon will be carried out in the near future.

The handling of morphology is currently achieved with an external morphological analyzer (mystem, interfaced to LKB through SPPP (

Also included in this release is a small Russian phenomenon-oriented test suite.

Last modified: 13.07.2011