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    Created: 2007-12-12 11:31:24
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      AUTHOR = {Trouvain, Jürgen and Barry, William J. and Nielsen, Claus and Andersen, Ove},
      TITLE = {Implications of Energy Declinations for Speech Synthesis},
      YEAR = {1998},
      BOOKTITLE = {3rd ESCA/ COCOSDA Workshop on Speech Synthesis, November},
      PAGES = {47-52},
      ADDRESS = {Jenolan Caves, Australia},
      ABSTRACT = {This paper examines whether observed phenomena in energy declination can be used to improve the naturalness of synthetic speech. In two production experiments different aspects of intensity fall-off within utterances are analysed including degree of stress, phrase length, phrase boundaries. Energy manipulation was carried out using diphone synthesis as a basis for generating stimuli for perception tests in English and Danish. The results of the listening experiments, in which different versions of a paragraph were ranked for naturalness indicate that amplitude differences can contribute to greater naturalness. However, it is apparent that fine-tuning of amplitude requires good quality synthesis at the more basic prosodic levels.},
      ANNOTE = {COLIURL : Trouvain:1998:IED.pdf}
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