This seminar is concerned with whether and how information-theoretic
concepts (surprisal: measuring the amount of information conveyed by a
word in context, or entropy: measuring the degree of uncertainty about
the rest of a sentence or utterance) can be used to explain a number
of fundamental properties of language.
Topics that we're going to consider with the information-theoretic perspective include:
All participants should have attended the lecture "Information Theory"
or have equivalent background on the topic. Contact Vera Demberg if in doubt.
Every participant will prepare a 25 min presentation on a paper. Two students will present per slot, and should prepare their presentation together. This means that we will have two presentations per session, but these presentations should be on a common topic, and explicitly relate to one another. The task is not only to present the paper, but also to prepare a discussion of how the two papers relate to one another, and what this tells us about information-theoretic accounts of the study of language.
Furthermore, participants are required to read at least one of the papers for each session, and send in a summary about the paper by email before the meeting. Following each meeting, every participant should fill in a peer review form.
MSc students can choose between a 4CP and 7CP version of the course. For the 7CP version, students additionally need to write a term paper. BSc students get 5CP for the course, and have to write a term paper.
|27.4.||Introduction and Organization||Vera Demberg|
|4.5.||Referring Expressions and UID:
Tic Tac TOE: Effects of predictability and importance on acoustic prominence in language production
Grammatical and Information-Structural Influences on Pronoun Production
Refer efficiently: Use less informative expressions for more predictable meanings
|Jorrig Vogels and Katja Kravtchenko|
|11.5.||Applications of UID for HCI: Dethlefs et al., 2012||Dave Howcroft|
|18.5.||Information Density / Surprisal and Salience
(1) Itti, L., & Baldi, P. (2009). Bayesian surprise attracts human attention. Vision research, 49(10), 1295-1306.
(2) Horstmann, G. (2015). The surprise–attention link: a review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1339(1), 106-115.
(3) Awh, E., Belopolsky, A. V., & Theeuwes, J. (2012). Top-down versus bottom-up attentional control: a failed theoretical dichotomy. Trends in cognitive sciences,16(8), 437-443.
|25.5.||Public Holiday (Pfingsten)|
|1.6.||UID on Twitter||Anna Currey|
|8.6.||Smooth Signal Redundancy / Jurafsky||Valeria Lapina and Stefanie Lund|
|15.6.||UID and Information Processing / Channel Capacity||Eva Horch|
|22.6.||Channel and Audience Design||Robin Lemke|
|29.6.||no meeting (SFB retreat)|
|6.7.||Reading Group||Jaeger and Snider 2013|
|13.7.||Clark, Andy. "Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36.03 (2013)||Reading Group|
|20.7.||UID vs. Paradigmatic effects||Reading Group|
|27.7.||Final discussion and wrap-up||Vera Demberg|
Van Egmond, Marjolein, Lizet Van Ewijk, and Sergey Avrutin. "A New
Theoretical Model for Word-Finding Difficulties in Aphasia."
Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 23 (2011): 175-176.
Lizet van Ewijk and Sergey Avrutin. 2010. Article Omission in Dutch Children with SLI: A Processing Approach.
Reading between the (head)lines: A processing account of article omissions in newspaper headlines and child speech Joke De Lange, Nada Vasic, Sergey Avrutin
Pate, John K., and Sharon Goldwater. "Talkers account for listener
and channel characteristics to communicate efficiently." Journal
of Memory and Language 78 (2015): 1-17.
Kurumada, C. & Jaeger, T.F. (2013). Communicatively efficient language production and case-marker omission in Japanese. The 35th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci13). Berlin, Germany. August, 2013.
Gabriel Doyle and Michael C Frank. 2015.
Audience size and noise levels modulate information density in
Twitter conversations. Proceedings of CMCL.
Gabriel Doyle and Michael C Frank. 2015. Shared common ground influences information density in microblog texts. Proceedings of NAACL-HLT.
Jurafsky, Daniel, et al. "Probabilistic relations between words:
Evidence from reduction in lexical production." Typological studies in
language 45 (2001): 229-254.
Aylett, M. and Turk, A. (2004). The smooth signal redundancy hypothesis: a functional explanation for relationships between redundancy, prosodic prominence, and duration in spontaneous speech. Language and Speech , 47:31–56.
Pellegrino, François, Christophe Coupé, and Egidio Marsico. "Across-language perspective on speech information rate." Language 87.3 (2011): 539-558.
Aylett, M. and Turk, A. (2006). Language redundancy predicts syllabic duration and the spectral characteristics of vocalic syllable nuclei. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 119(1):30–48.
Michael Ramscar, Richard Futrell, Dan Jurafsky, Melody Dye.
Der Pfauenschwanz's Tale: The Evolution of Noun Classification in
Two "Awful" Germanic Languages. (unpublished, will be sent out by mail).
Tabak, Wieke, Robert Schreuder, and R. Harald Baayen. "Lexical statistics and lexical processing: semantic density, information complexity, sex, and irregularity in Dutch." Linguistic evidence—Empirical, theoretical, and computational perspectives (2005): 529-555.
Fermı́n Moscoso del Prado Martı́n, Aleksandar Kostić, R.Harald Baayen.
Putting the bits together: an information theoretical perspective on morphological processing
V Kuperman, M Pluymaekers, M Ernestus, H Baayen. (2007). Morphological predictability and acoustic duration of interfixes in Dutch compounds. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 121, 2261
Tily, H., & Kuperman, V. (2012). Rational phonological lengthening in spoken Dutch. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 132 , 3935–3940.
Temperley, David, and Daniel Gildea. "Information Density and
Syntactic Repetition." Cognitive science (2015).
Vera Demberg, Asad Sayeed, Philip Gorinski and Nikolaos Engonopoulos. "Syntactic surprisal affects spoken word duration in conversational contexts." Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2012.
Asad Sayeed, Stefan Fischer and Vera Demberg. Vector-space calculation
of semantic surprisal for predicting word pronunciation
duration. ACL 2015
Scott Seyfarth. Word informativity influences acoustic duration: Effects of contextual predictability on lexical representation.
Fatemeh Torabi Asr and Vera Demberg
"Implicitness of Discourse Relations"
In Proceedings of COLING 2012, Mumbai, India, Dec 2012
Uniform Information Density at the Level of Discourse Relations: Negation Markers and Discourse Connective Omission Fatemeh Torabi Asr and Vera Demberg in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS 2015)
H. Tily and ST Piantadosi. (2009) Refer efficiently: Use less informative
expressions for more predictable meanings. In Proceedings of the
workshop on the production of referring expressions: Bridging the gap
between computational and empirical approaches to reference.
Rohde, Hannah, and Andrew Kehler. "Grammatical and information-structural influences on pronoun production." Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 29.8 (2014): 912-927.
Gibson, E., Piantadosi, S., Brink, K., Bergen, L., Lim, E. & Saxe,
R. (2013). A noisy-channel account of cross-linguistic word order
variation. Psychological Science, 4(7):1079-88. doi: 10.1177
Maurits, L., Perfors, A., and Navarro, D. (2010). Why are some word orders more common than others? a uniform information density account. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 23 , pages 1585–1593, Cambridge, MA. MIT Press.
Fine AB, Jaeger TF, Farmer TA, Qian T (2013) Rapid Expectation
Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension. PLoS ONE 8(10):
Fedzechkina, Maryia, T. Florian Jaeger, and Elissa L. Newport. "Language learners restructure their input to facilitate efficient communication." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.44 (2012): 17897-17902.
V Kuperman, M Pluymaekers, M Ernestus, H
Baayen. (2007). Morphological predictability and acoustic duration of
interfixes in Dutch compounds. The Journal of the Acoustical Society
of America 121, 2261
Milin, Petar, et al. "Paradigms bit by bit: An information theoretic approach to the processing of paradigmatic structure in inflection and derivation." Analogy in grammar: Form and acquisition (2009): 214-252.
Clara Cohen. Probabilistic reduction and probabilistic enhancement.
Levy, Roger. "Integrating surprisal and uncertain-input models in
online sentence comprehension: formal techniques and empirical
results." Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association
for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies-Volume 1.
Association for Computational Linguistics, 2011.
Gibson, E., Bergen, L. & Piantadosi, S. (2013). The rational integration of noisy evidence and prior semantic expectations in sentence interpretation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, doi:10.1073/pnas.1216438110
Dethlefs, Nina, et al. "Optimising incremental dialogue decisions
using information density for interactive systems." Proceedings of the
2012 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language
Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning. Association
for Computational Linguistics, 2012.
Rajkumar, Rajakrishnan, and Michael White. "Linguistically motivated complementizer choice in surface realization." Proceedings of the UCNLG+ Eval: Language Generation and Evaluation Workshop. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2011.
Justine T. Kao, Roger Levy and Noah D. Goodman. In press. A Computational Model of Linguistic Humor in Puns. Cognitive Science.
Levy, R., Bicknell, K., Slattery, T., & Rayner, K. (2009). Eye
movement evidence that readers maintain and act on uncertainty about
past linguistic input. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences, 106(50), 21086-21090.
Bicknell, K., & Levy, R. (2010). A rational model of eye movement control in reading. In Proceedings of the 48th annual meeting of the association for computational linguistics (pp. 1168-1178). Association for Computational Linguistics.
Klinton Bicknell, Roger Levy. (2012.) Word predictability and frequency effects in a rational model of reading. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society